Occupational Exposure to Text- and Code-Generating Artificial Intelligence in Finland


About 19% of Finnish employment is in occupations with at least 50% of tasks exposed to Generative Artificial Intelligence (GAI) with text- and code-generating abilities, such as ChatGPT. Most jobs need some adjustment due to recent advances in GAI, but relatively few will be heavily disrupted.

Our results do not support the “end-of-work” narrative. GAI’s long-term impact on human employment is ambiguous; its effects could certainly be positive, especially if GAI turns out to be a sustained source of productivity growth. Whatever the outcome, our findings suggest that a labor market change induced by GAI is brewing and that individuals, organizations, and society all need to make a conscious decision to adapt.

In our view, the biggest risk of GAI in the Finnish labor market is that we will not explore the opportunities it offers with any enthusiasm. Its impact is best faced head-on, and early adopters stand to benefit the most from it. More broadly, the biggest societal risk – in our view – is that we are less and less capable of separating human- and GAI-generated digital content (including audio, images, and video), with a heightened risk of disinformation and highly targeted cyber-attacks.

This research brief replicates the analysis by Eloundou et al. (2023) in the context of Finland.

Publication info

Results of research
AI in the working life - what will happen to Finland's competitiveness?
Research group
Labour market and education
ETLA Muistio - ETLA Brief 127
Generative artificial intelligence, Technological change, Employment, Labor market, Occupations
E24, J21, O33