Extreme Events

Casti JohnIlmola LeenaRouvinen PetriWilenius Markku

Due to the exceptional economic situation caused by the coronavirus epidemic, we have opened a free publication: Extreme Events.


This book serves as the final report of the Game Changers project, which was established towards the end of 2009 as a part of the Extreme Events in Human Society initiative at IIASA, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Laxenburg, Austria).

A specific extreme event (Xevent) is unlikely but it potentially has significant societal impacts. However, due to the range of possible Xevents and their transmission via global links, the effects of some Xevent touch upon Finland quite frequently. We argue that Xevents should be on of the central concerns of decision makers in all sectors.

A completely Xevent-free society is infeasible, but some protection is nearly cost free and comes as a by-product. Contingency planning should be considered as a part of good governance. We propose that Finland be turned to a model for an anticipatory society, which constantly prepares for contingencies of various kinds.

Louis Pasteur said that Chance favors only the prepared mind. We whole-heartedly agree. And we encourage preparing sooner rather than later.

Publication info

978-951-628-718-1 (print) 978-951-628-719-8 (pdf)
40 €
Availability of print version
Out of print